Taste is a sense interrelated with olfaction. Together, taste and olfaction produce the sensation designated as flavor, which influences dietary intake. This review discussed the embryology and anatomy of taste, and then their central processing in the brain. It also addresses diseases that may alter taste perception. Learning Objective: Reading this review will help the reader to understand the embryology and anatomy of the taste system. It explains how taste is sensed, how that sensation is perceived by the brain, and how that perception regulates ingestion, satiety, and obesity. The reader will also learn how different diseases affect the appearance of the tongue and the sense of taste.