Two isomers of retinoic acid (RA) may be necessary as ligands for retinoid signaling: all-trans-RA for RA receptors (RARs) and 9-cis-RA for retinoid X receptors (RXRs). This was explored by using retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (Raldh)2-/- mouse embryos lacking mesodermal RA synthesis that display early growth arrest unless rescued by all-trans-RA administration. Because isomerization of all-trans-RA to 9-cis-RA can occur, it is unclear whether both ligands are needed for rescue. We show here that an RAR-specific ligand can rescue Raldh2-/- embryos as efficiently as all-trans-RA, whereas an RXR-specific ligand has no effect. Further, whereas all-trans-RA was detected in embryos, 9-cis-RA was undetectable unless a supraphysiological dose of all-trans-RA was administered, revealing that 9-cis-RA is of pharmacological but not physiological significance. Because 9-cis-RA is undetectable and unnecessary for Raldh2-/- rescue, and others have shown that 4-oxo-RA is unnecessary for mouse development, all-trans-RA emerges as the only ligand clearly necessary for retinoid receptor signaling.
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|State||Published - 10 Jun 2003|