Regulating trained immunity with nanomedicine

Mandy M.T. van Leent, Bram Priem, David P. Schrijver, Anne de Dreu, Stijn R.J. Hofstraat, Robby Zwolsman, Thijs J. Beldman, Mihai G. Netea, Willem J.M. Mulder

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


Trained immunity refers to a hyperresponsive functional state of the innate immune system, which is induced by certain stimuli, such as infections or vaccination. Trained immunity plays a key part in a variety of diseases, including cancer and inflammation, and is regulated through epigenetic and metabolic reprogramming of haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in the bone marrow, giving rise to hyperactive myeloid cells. Nanomaterials inherently interact with phagocytic myeloid cells and are thus ideal platforms with which to regulate trained immunity. In this Review, we discuss the key pathways of trained immunity and investigate nanomedicine strategies to therapeutically regulate trained immunity. Nanomedicine can be applied not only to induce trained immunity to treat cancer or to enhance resistance to infections, but also to manage hyperinflammation and maladaptive trained immunity in a variety of clinical scenarios. We conclude with an outlook to future possibilities and some remaining challenges for nanomedicine approaches in trained immunity regulation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)465-481
Number of pages17
JournalNature Reviews Materials
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2022


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