A human genomic DNA fragment, pAM37 (HGM8; D21S22), was mapped to chromosome 21q2.1-q2.21 by in situ hybridization. This segment is therefore situated on the boundary of the "pathological region" of Down syndrome. A genomic restriction map encompassing 35 kb of chromosome 21 was derived and two restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were mapped and characterized. A homologous sequence was detected in the mouse genome but no homologous RNA was detected in a range of human tissues. This DNA segment will contribute to the linkage mapping of chromosome 21 and will facilitate delineation of the pathological region of Down syndrome.