Refractory carotid-cavernous fistula: causes and countermeasures

D. Wang, F. Ling, M. Li, H. Zhang, Z. Miu, Q. Song, X. Li, M. Hao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


OBJECTIVE: To explore the causes and countermeasures of refractory carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF). METHODS: Twelve refractory cases from 123 cases of consecutive traumatic CCF during 12 years were reviewed. RESULTS: The main causes of refractory CCF were: small or large fistula's opening, or constrictive parent artery; inappropriate early treatments such as ligature of internal carotid artery or common carotid artery, balloon detachment of, and non-dense packing of coils inside the cavernous sinus; unexpected deflation or balloon displacement of resulting in fistula recurrence. Anatomical cure was achieved in 11 cases, and clinical care in 1 by using balloon or/and coil or/and NBCA (n-butal 2-cyanoacrylate) through arterial, venous or surgical approach. CONCLUSIONS: refractory CCF can be treated effectively skilled catheterization and embolization as well as appropriate approach and embolic material according to fistula structure and vascular route.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)754-756
Number of pages3
JournalZhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1999
Externally publishedYes


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