Patients who have disabling coronary artery disease may not be candidates for percutaneous coronary interventions or coronary artery bypass surgery. When medical therapy alone provides little or no relief, these patients are said to have refractory angina. This patient population has grown larger as longevity and the frequency of repeated revascularization procedures have increased. Among the options available for helping these seriously ill patients find relief from intractable anginal pain and activity limitations are long-term antithrombotic/fibrinolytic therapy, neurostimulation, epidural anesthesia, and enhanced external counterpulsation. Newer treatment modalities such as these are offering relief for patients with symptoms unresponsive to both conventional medical therapy and mechanical options.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Journal of Critical Illness|
|State||Published - 2002|