Refining safe contrast limits for preventing acute kidney injury after percutaneous coronary intervention

Neal Yuan, Khalid Latif, Patrick G. Botting, Yaron Elad, Steven M. Bradley, Teryl K. Nuckols, Susan Cheng, Joseph E. Ebinger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: Contrast-associated acute kidney injury (CA-AKI) is associated with substantial morbidity and may be prevented by using less contrast during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, tools for determining safe contrast volumes are limited. We developed risk models to tailor safe contrast volume limits during PCI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using data from all PCIs performed at 18 hospitals from January 2015 to March 2018, we developed logistic regression models for predicting CA-AKI, including simpler models (“pragmatic full,” “pragmatic minimum”) using only predictors easily derivable from electronic health records. We prospectively validated these models using PCI data from April 2018 to December 2018 and compared them to preexisting safe contrast models using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The model derivation data set included 20 579 PCIs with 2102 CA-AKI cases. When applying models to the separate validation data set (5423 PCIs, 488 CA-AKI cases), prior safe contrast limits (5*Weight/Creatinine, 2*CreatinineClearance) were poor measures of safety with accuracies of 53.7% and 56.6% in predicting CA-AKI, respectively. The full, pragmatic full, and pragmatic minimum models performed significantly better (accuracy, 73.1%, 69.3%, 66.6%; AUC, 0.80, 0.76, 0.72 versus 0.59 for 5 * Weight/Creatinine, 0.61 for 2*CreatinineClearance). We found that applying safe contrast limits could meaningfully reduce CA-AKI risk in one-quarter of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with preexisting equations, new multivariate models for safe contrast limits were substantially more accurate in predicting CA-AKI and could help determine which patients benefit most from limiting contrast during PCI. Using readily available electronic health record data, these models could be implemented into electronic health records to provide actionable information for improving PCI safety.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere018890
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of the American Heart Association
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Contrast-associated acute kidney injury
  • Contrast-induced nephropathy
  • Percutaneous coronary intervention


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