Reengineering Electronic Fetal Monitoring Interpretation: Using the Fetal Reserve Index to Anticipate the Need for Emergent Operative Delivery

Robert D. Eden, Mark I. Evans, Shara M. Evans, Barry S. Schifrin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: The near-ubiquitous use of electronic fetal monitoring has failed to lower the rates of both cerebral palsy and emergency operative deliveries (EODs). Its performance metrics have low sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for both. There are many EODs, but the vast majority have normal outcomes. The EODs, however, cause serious disruption in the delivery suite routine with increased complications, anxiety, and concern for all. Methods: We developed the fetal reserve index (FRI) as multicomponent algorithm including 4 FHR components (analyzed individually), uterine activity, and maternal, obstetrical, and fetal risk factors to assess risk of cerebral palsy and EOD. Scores were categorized into green, yellow, and red zones. Here, we studied 300 patients by the FRI, all of whom had normal neonatal outcomes. We attempted to distinguish the clinical course of those cases which required an EOD versus controls which did not. Results: 51 cases with EOD had FRIs much lower than 249 non-EOD cases. The red zone was reached more frequently (P <.001) and lasted longer (1.06 vs 0.05 hours; P <.001). Reaching the red zone had a sensitivity of 92% for EOD, with a positive predictive value of 64% and a false positive rate of 10.4%. Conclusions: Our data suggest the FRI can significantly lower the incidence of EODs by identifying the opportunity for intrauterine resuscitation. Our approach can reduce the disruptive effects of EODs and their concomitant increased risks of complications. The FRI may provide a metric that can refine labor management to reduce CP and EODs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)487-497
Number of pages11
JournalReproductive Sciences
Volume25
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2018

Keywords

  • ACOG monitoring classification system
  • electronic fetal monitoring
  • emergency operative deliveries
  • fetal reserve index
  • intrauterine resuscitation
  • stat cesarean delivery

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