Recurrent Wnt Pathway and ARID1A Alterations in Sinonasal Olfactory Carcinoma

Lisa M. Rooper, Abbas Agaimy, Diana Bell, Jeffrey Gagan, Gary L. Gallia, Vickie Y. Jo, James S. Lewis, Nyall R. London, Michiya Nishino, Robert Stoehr, Lester D.R. Thompson, Nasir Ud Din, Bruce M. Wenig, William H. Westra, Justin A. Bishop

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Sinonasal tumors with neuroepithelial differentiation, defined by neuroectodermal elements reminiscent of olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) and epithelial features such as keratin expression or gland formation, are a diagnostically challenging group that has never been formally included in sinonasal tumor classifications. Recently, we documented that most of these neuroepithelial neoplasms have distinctive histologic and immunohistochemical findings and proposed the term “olfactory carcinoma” to describe these tumors. However, the molecular characteristics of olfactory carcinoma have not yet been evaluated. In this study, we performed targeted molecular profiling of 23 sinonasal olfactory carcinomas to further clarify their pathogenesis and classification. All tumors included in this study were composed of high-grade neuroectodermal cells that were positive for pankeratin and at least 1 specific neuroendocrine marker. A significant subset of cases also displayed rosettes and neurofibrillary matrix, intermixed glands with variable cilia, peripheral p63/p40 expression, and S100 protein-positive sustentacular cells. Recurrent oncogenic molecular alterations were identified in 20 tumors, including Wnt pathway alterations affecting CTNNB1 (n = 8) and PPP2R1A (n = 2), ARID1A inactivation (n = 5), RUNX1 mutations (n = 3), and IDH2 hotspot mutations (n = 2). Overall, these findings do demonstrate the presence of recurrent molecular alterations in olfactory carcinoma, although this group of tumors does not appear to be defined by any single mutation. Minimal overlap with alterations previously reported in ONB also adds to histologic and immunohistochemical separation between ONB and olfactory carcinoma. Conversely, these molecular findings enhance the overlap between olfactory carcinoma and sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinomas. A small subset of neuroepithelial tumors might better fit into the superseding molecular category of IDH2-mutant sinonasal carcinoma. At this point, sinonasal neuroendocrine and neuroepithelial tumors may best be regarded as a histologic and molecular spectrum that includes core groups of ONB, olfactory carcinoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma, and IDH2-mutant sinonasal carcinoma.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100448
JournalModern Pathology
Volume37
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2024
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • adenocarcinoma
  • immunohistochemistry
  • molecular diagnostics
  • nasal neoplasms
  • neuroendocrine carcinoma
  • olfactory carcinoma
  • olfactory neuroblastoma
  • teratocarcinosarcoma

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