Recurrent Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma – Review

Yuki Bekki, Dagny Von Ahrens, Hideo Takahashi, Myron Schwartz, Ganesh Gunasekaran

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is the second-most common primary liver malignancy after hepatocellular carcinoma. While surgical resection with negative margin is the only curative treatment, ICC has very high rate of recurrence, up to 60-70% after curative resection. We reviewed the current data available on risk factors for ICC recurrence, recurrence pattern (location and timing), treatment options, and future directions. The risk factors for recurrence include elevated preoperative CA19-9, presence of liver cirrhosis, nodal metastasis, positive margins, and vascular invasion. Understanding different recurrence patterns, timing course, and risk factors for early recurrence is important to tailor postoperative surveillance and select treatment strategies including systemic or locoregional therapy. Re-resection can be considered for a selected patient population at experienced centers, and can yield long-term survival. ICC remains a dismal disease given the high likelihood of recurrence. Advances in our understanding of the genomic landscape of ICC are beginning to identify targetable alterations in ICC in subsets of patients that allow for personalized treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number776863
JournalFrontiers in Oncology
StatePublished - 21 Oct 2021


  • intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma
  • management
  • re-resection of the liver
  • recurrence
  • risk factors for recurrence


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