Background: Patients with atrial fibrillation who undergo intracoronary stenting traditionally are treated with a vitamin K antagonist (VKA) plus dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), yet this treatment leads to high risks of bleeding. We hypothesized that a regimen of rivaroxaban plus a P2Y 12 inhibitor monotherapy or rivaroxaban plus DAPT could reduce bleeding and thereby have a favorable impact on all-cause mortality and the need for rehospitalization. Methods: Stented subjects with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (n=2124) were randomized 1:1:1 to administration of reduced-dose rivaroxaban 15 mg daily plus a P2Y 12 inhibitor for 12 months (group 1); rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily with stratification to a prespecified duration of DAPT of 1, 6, or 12 months (group 2); or the reference arm of dose-adjusted VKA daily with a similar DAPT stratification (group 3). The present post hoc analysis assessed the end point of all-cause mortality or recurrent hospitalization for an adverse event, which was further classified as the result of bleeding, a cardiovascular cause, or another cause blinded to treatment assignment. Results: The risk of all-cause mortality or recurrent hospitalization was 34.9% in group 1 (hazard ratio=0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.66-0.94; P=0.008 versus group 3; number needed to treat=15), 31.9% in group 2 (hazard ratio=0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.62-0.90; P=0.002 versus group 3; number needed to treat=10), and 41.9% in group 3 (VKA+DAPT). Both all-cause death plus hospitalization potentially resulting from bleeding (group 1=8.6% [P=0.032 versus group 3], group 2=8.0% [P=0.012 versus group 3], and group 3=12.4%) and all-cause death plus rehospitalization potentially resulting from a cardiovascular cause (group 1=21.4% [P=0.001 versus group 3], group 2=21.7% [P=0.011 versus group 3], and group 3=29.3%) were reduced in the rivaroxaban arms compared with the VKA arm, but other forms of rehospitalization were not. Conclusions: Among patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing intracoronary stenting, administration of either rivaroxaban 15 mg daily plus P2Y 12 inhibitor monotherapy or 2.5 mg rivaroxaban twice daily plus DAPT was associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality or recurrent hospitalization for adverse events compared with standard-of-care VKA plus DAPT.
- Vitamin K
- atrial fibrillation
- percutaneous coronary intervention