Newly optimized reverse genetics techniques have allowed influenza researchers to generate recombinant influenza viruses expressing mutant viral proteins, as well as foreign proteins. Approaches include the insertion of noninfluenza epitopes and polypeptides into viral glycoproteins, foreign open reading frames as additional segments, and the fusion of independent proteins into viral genes encoding glycoproteins or the nonstructural protein 1. These genetically engineered viruses have been demonstrated to be good viral vectors for mounting B- and T-cell responses and are attractive candidates for vaccine development. As the molecular biology of influenza viral infection is more fully understood, influenza vectors can be concurrently manipulated to produce designed chimeric viruses, unveiling the possibility of a prosperous future with cheap, effective and safe vaccines against different human diseases.
- Foreign polypeptides
- Helper virus
- Influenza virus
- Plasmid-based reverse genetics systems
- Recombinant virus