Recent Advances in Pathology of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

Joon Hyuk Choi, Swan N. Thung

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICCA) is a malignant epithelial neoplasm characterized by biliary differentiation within the liver. ICCA is molecularly heterogeneous and exhibits a broad spectrum of histopathological features. It is a highly aggressive carcinoma with high mortality and poor survival rates. ICCAs are classified into two main subtypes: the small-duct type and large-duct types. These two tumor types have different cell origins and clinicopathological features. ICCAs are characterized by numerous molecular alterations, including mutations in KRAS, TP53, IDH1/2, ARID1A, BAP1, BRAF, SAMD4, and EGFR, and FGFR2 fusion. Two main molecular subtypes—inflammation and proliferation—have been proposed. Recent advances in high-throughput assays using next-generation sequencing have improved our understanding of ICCA pathogenesis and molecular genetics. The diagnosis of ICCA poses a significant challenge for pathologists because of its varied morphologies and phenotypes. Accurate diagnosis of ICCA is essential for effective patient management and prognostic determination. This article provides an updated overview of ICCA pathology, focusing particularly on molecular features, histological subtypes, and diagnostic approaches.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1537
Issue number8
StatePublished - Apr 2024


  • classification
  • diagnosis
  • intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma
  • molecular genetics
  • pathology


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