1 Scopus citations


Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting the programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) axis (collectively referred to as PD[L]1i) have demonstrated clinical benefits in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. The purpose of this United States-based real-world study is to examine changes in the landscape of first-line therapies for NSCLC since the introduction of PD(L)1i. Methods: Patients with NSCLC initiating first-line treatment between May 1, 2017, and October 31, 2020, were identified in the IBM MarketScan® database. Patients were assigned groups based on first-line therapy: PD(L)1i monotherapy, chemotherapy alone, PD(L)1i with chemotherapy, or targeted therapy for patients with actionable driver mutations. Results: A total of 5431 patients with NSCLC starting first-line treatment were identified: chemotherapy alone 2568 (47%), PD(L)1i with chemotherapy 1364 (25%), PD(L)1i monotherapy 790 (15%), and targeted therapy 709 (13%). The use of PD(L)1i monotherapy and targeted therapy remained consistent, while the percentage of patients receiving PD(L)1i with chemotherapy more than doubled. Over a third of patients in 2019 and 2020 received chemotherapy alone. Patients aged ≥65 years (odds ratio [OR]: 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.68–0.95), females (OR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.74–0.98), and those with respiratory (OR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.71–0.94) or kidney (OR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.40–0.77) disease were less likely to have received PD(L)1i with chemotherapy than patients that received chemotherapy alone. Conclusions: Since the approval of PD(L)1i for NSCLC, their use has significantly increased for first-line treatment, especially when used in combination with chemotherapy. A significant proportion of patients received chemotherapy alone.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4265-4272
Number of pages8
JournalCancer Medicine
Issue number22
StatePublished - Nov 2022


  • non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)
  • programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)
  • programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1)
  • real-world evidence
  • treatment patterns


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