Real-time prognostic biomarkers for predicting in-hospital mortality and cardiac complications in COVID-19 patients

Rawan Omar, Sooyun Caroline Tavolacci, Lathan Liou, Dillan F. Villavisanis, Yoav Y. Broza, Hossam Haick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Hospitalized patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are highly susceptible to in-hospital mortality and cardiac complications such as atrial arrhythmias (AA). However, the utilization of biomarkers such as potassium, B-type natriuretic peptide, albumin, and others for diagnosis or the prediction of in-hospital mortality and cardiac complications has not been well established. The study aims to investigate whether biomarkers can be utilized to predict mortality and cardiac complications among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Data were collected from 6,927 hospitalized COVID-19 patients from March 1, 2020, to March 31, 2021 at one quaternary (Henry Ford Health) and five community hospital registries (Trinity Health Systems). A multivariable logistic regression prediction model was derived using a random sample of 70% for derivation and 30% for validation. Serum values, demographic variables, and comorbidities were used as input predictors. The primary outcome was inhospital mortality, and the secondary outcome was onset of AA. The associations between predictor variables and outcomes are presented as odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Discrimination was assessed using area under ROC curve (AUC). Calibration was assessed using Brier score. The model predicted in-hospital mortality with an AUC of 90% [95% CI: 88%, 92%]. In addition, potassium showed promise as an independent prognostic biomarker that predicted both in-hospital mortality, with an AUC of 71.51% [95% Cl: 69.51%, 73.50%], and AA with AUC of 63.6% [95% Cl: 58.86%, 68.34%]. Within the test cohort, an increase of 1 mEq/L potassium was associated with an in-hospital mortality risk of 1.40 [95% CI: 1.14, 1.73] and a risk of new onset of AA of 1.55 [95% CI: 1.25, 1.93]. This cross-sectional study suggests that biomarkers can be used as prognostic variables for inhospital mortality and onset of AA among hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0002836
JournalPLOS Global Public Health
Issue number3
StatePublished - 6 Mar 2024


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