Rapid retinal functional testing

Sarah A. Weitzman, Vivienne Greenstein, Alauddin Bhuiyan, Albert Hofeldt, Steven Kane, R. Theodore Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The most prominent causes of loss of vision in individuals over 50 years include age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy (DR). While it is important to screen for these diseases effectively, current eye care is not properly doing so for much of the population, resulting in unfortunate visual disability and high costs for patients. Innovative functional testing can be unified with other screening methods for a more robust and safer screening and prediction of disease. The goal in the creation of functional testing modalities is to develop highly sensitive screening tests that are easy to use, accessible to all users, and inexpensive. The tests herein are deployed on an iPad with easily understood and intuitive instructions for rapid, streamlined, and automatic administration. These testing modalities could become highly sensitive screenings for early detection of potentially blinding diseases. The applications from our collaborators at AMA Optics include a cone photostress recovery test for detection of AMD and diabetic macular edema (DME), brightness balance perception for optic nerve dysfunction and especially glaucoma, color vision testing which is a broad screening tool, and visual acuity test. Machine learning with the combined structural and functional data will optimize identification of disease and prediction of outcomes. Here, we review and assess various tests of visual function that are easily administered on a tablet for screening in primary care. These user-friendly and simple screening tests allow patients to be identified in the early stages of disease for referral to specialists, proper assessment and treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number:25
JournalAnnals of Eye Science
StatePublished - Sep 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)
  • Brightness balance
  • Color vision
  • Dark adaptation
  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • Functional testing
  • Glaucoma
  • IPad
  • Photostress recovery
  • Screening
  • Visual acuity


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