Rapid communication: Immunostimulatory DNA is a potent mucosal adjuvant

Anthony A. Horner, Arash Ronaghy, Pei Ming Cheng, Minh Duc Nguyen, Hearn J. Cho, David Broide, Eyal Raz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

93 Scopus citations


Most proteins delivered to mucosal surfaces fail to induce mucosal or systemic immune responses. We demonstrate that a single intranasal (i.n.) coadministration of a model antigen (β-galactosidase, β-gal) with immunostimulatory sequence oligodeoxynucleotide (ISS-ODN) induces a mucosal IgA response equivalent to that induced by i.n. codelivery of β-gal with cholera toxin (CT). Furthermore, i.n. and intradermal (i.d.) delivery of the β-gal/ISS-ODN mix stimulates equivalent Th1-biased systemic immune responses with high-level cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity. In contrast, i.n. immunization with β-gal and CT results in a Th2-biased systemic immune response with poor CTL activity. Our data show that i.n. delivery of ISS-ODN provides effective adjuvant activity for the induction of both mucosal and systemic Th1-biased immune responses. This immunization approach deserves consideration in the development of vaccines against mucosal pathogens.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)77-82
Number of pages6
JournalCellular Immunology
Issue number1
StatePublished - 25 Nov 1998
Externally publishedYes


  • IgA
  • Immunostimulatory sequence DNA
  • Mucosal adjuvant
  • Vaccination


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