Background and Purpose-: Clazosentan, an endothelin receptor antagonist, has been shown to reduce vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). CONSCIOUS-3 assessed whether clazosentan reduced vasospasm-related morbidity and all-cause mortality postaSAH secured by endovascular coiling. Methods-: This double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial randomized patients with aSAH secured by endovascular coiling to ≤14 days intravenous clazosentan (5 or 15 mg/h) or placebo. The primary composite end point (all-cause mortality; vasospasm-related new cerebral infarcts or delayed ischemic neurological deficits; rescue therapy for vasospasm) was evaluated 6 weeks postaSAH. The main secondary end point was dichotomized extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (week 12). Results-: CONSCIOUS-3 was halted prematurely following completion of CONSCIOUS-2; 577/1500 of planned patients (38%) were enrolled and 571 were treated (placebo, n=189; clazosentan 5 mg/h, n=194; clazosentan 15 mg/h, n=188). The primary end point occurred in 50/189 of placebo-treated patients (27%), compared with 47/194 patients (24%) treated with clazosentan 5 mg/h (odds ratio [OR], 0.786; 95% CI, 0.479-1.289; P=0.340), and 28/188 patients (15%) treated with clazosentan 15 mg/h (OR, 0.474; 95% CI, 0.275-0.818; P=0.007). Poor outcome (extended Glasgow Outcome Scale score ≤4) occurred in 24% of patients with placebo, 25% of patients with clazosentan 5 mg/h (OR, 0.918; 95% CI, 0.546-1.544; P=0.748), and 28% of patients with clazosentan 15 mg/h (OR, 1.337; 95% CI, 0.802-2.227; P=0.266). Pulmonary complications, anemia, and hypotension were more common in patients who received clazosentan than in those who received placebo. At week 12, mortality was 6%, 4%, and 6% with placebo, clazosentan 5 mg/h, and clazosentan 15 mg/h, respectively. Conclusions-: Clazosentan 15 mg/h significantly reduced postaSAH vasospasm-related morbidity/all-cause mortality; however, neither dose improved outcome (extended Glasgow Outcome Scale). Clinical Trial Registration-: URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00940095.
- aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage
- endovascular coiling
- phase III