C6-R is a cell line derived from C6 glioma cells that exhibits key properties of radial glia including the ability to support neuronal migration in culture. To explore its potential use in promoting neuronal migration in vivo, we analyzed the behavior of C6-R cells in the intact and injured adult rat CNS. At 6-11 days postimplantation at the splenium of the corpus callosum, green fluorescent protein-labeled C6-R cells were observed primarily in either the corpus callosum or the hippocampus in the brain, and in the spinal cord they migrated more extensively in the white matter than in the grey matter. To determine whether C6-R cells retain their ability to promote neuronal migration in vivo, they were coinjected with labeled neurons into adult brain. When rat embryonic neurons were coimplanted with C6-R cells, the neurons and C6-R cells comigrated through a much larger volume than neurons alone or neurons coimplanted with fibroblasts. In brains preinjured with ibotenic acid, C6-R cells as well as coimplanted neurons distributed widely within the lesion site and migrated into adjacent brain tissue, while transplants with neurons alone were restricted primarily to the lesion site. The results suggest that radial glial cell lines can serve as a scaffold for neuronal migration that may facilitate development of experimental models for neural transplantation and regeneration.