Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Aortic Valve Replacement Among Medicare Beneficiaries in the United States, 2012-2019

Aakriti Gupta, Makoto Mori, Yun Wang, Shubhadarshini G. Pawar, Torsten Vahl, Tamim Nazif, Oyere Onuma, Celina M. Yong, Rahul Sharma, Ajay J. Kirtane, John K. Forrest, Isaac George, Susheel Kodali, Joanna Chikwe, Arnar Geirsson, Raj Makkar, Martin B. Leon, Harlan M. Krumholz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: There are concerns that transcatheter or surgical aortic valve replacement (TAVR/SAVR) procedures are preferentially available to White patients. Our objective was to examine differences in utilization of aortic valve replacement and outcomes by race/ethnicity in the US for patients with aortic stenosis. Methods: We performed a serial cross-sectional cohort study of 299,976 Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized with principal diagnosis of aortic stenosis between 2012 and 2019 stratified by self-reported race/ethnicity (Black, Hispanic, Asian, Native American, and White). Outcomes included aortic valve replacement rates within 6 months of index hospitalization and associated procedural outcomes, including 30-day readmission, 30-day and 1-year mortality. Results: Within 6 months of an index admission for aortic stenosis, 86.8% (122,457 SAVR; 138,026 TAVR) patients underwent aortic valve replacement. Overall, compared with White people, Black (HR 0.87 [0.85-0.89]), Hispanic (0.92 [0.88-0.96]), and Asian (0.95 [0.91-0.99]) people were less likely to receive aortic valve replacement. Among patients who were admitted emergently/urgently, White patients (41.1%, 95% CI, 40.7-41.4) had a significantly higher aortic valve replacement rate compared with Black (29.6%, 95% CI, 28.3-30.9), Hispanic (36.6%, 95% CI, 34.0-39.3), and Asian patients (35.4%, 95% CI, 32.3-38.9). Aortic valve replacement rates increased annually for all race/ethnicities. There were no significant differences in 30-day or 1-year mortality by race/ethnicity. Conclusions: Aortic valve replacement rates within 6 months of aortic stenosis admission are lower for Black, Hispanic, and Asian people compared to White people. These race-related differences in aortic stenosis treatment reflect complex issues in diagnosis and management, warranting a comprehensive reassessment of the entire care spectrum for disadvantaged populations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)321-330.e7
JournalAmerican Journal of Medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • Aortic valve replacement
  • Disparities
  • Medicare
  • United states


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