Background: Despite the extensive literature on racial disparities in care and outcomes after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), data on manipulation under anesthesia (MUA) is lacking. We aimed to determine (1) the relationship between race and rate of (and time to) MUA after TKA, and (2) annual trends in racial differences in MUA from 2013 to 2018. Methods: This retrospective cohort study (using 2013-2018 Medicare Limited Data Set claims data) included 836,054 primary TKA patients. The primary outcome was MUA <1 year after TKA; time from TKA to MUA in days was also recorded. A mixed-effects multivariable model measured the association between race (White, Black, Other) and odds of MUA. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported. A Cochran Armitage Trend test was conducted to assess MUA trends over time, stratified by race. Results: MUA after TKA occurred in 1.7%, 3.2% and 2.1% of White, Black, and Other race categories, respectively (SMD = 0.07). After adjustment for covariates, (Black vs White) patients had increased odds of requiring an MUA after TKA: odds ratio (OR) 1.97, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.86-2.10, P < .0001. Moreover, White (compared to Black) patients had significantly shorter time to MUA after TKA: 60 days (interquartile range [IQR] 46-88) versus 64 days (interquartile range [IQR] 47-96); P < .0001. These disparities persisted from 2013 through 2018. Conclusion: Continued racial differences exist for rates and timing of MUA following TKA signifying the continued need for efforts aimed toward understanding and eliminating inequalities that exist in total joint arthroplasty (TJA) care.
- manipulation under anesthesia
- postoperative stiffness
- racial disparities
- total knee arthroplasty