Racial and Ethnic Differences in Antihypertensive Medication Use and Blood Pressure Control among US Adults with Hypertension: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003 to 2012

Anna Gu, Yu Yue, Raj P. Desai, Edgar Argulian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

118 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background - A key to reduce and eradicate racial disparities in hypertension outcomes is to understand their causes. We aimed at evaluating racial differences in antihypertensive drug utilization patterns and blood pressure control by insurance status, age, sex, and presence of comorbidities. Methods and Results - A total of 8796 hypertensive individuals ≥18 years of age were identified from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2012) in a repeated cross-sectional study. During the study period, all 3 racial groups (whites, blacks, and Hispanics) experienced substantial increase in hypertension treatment and control. The overall treatment rates were 73.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 71.6%-76.2%), 70.8% (95% CI, 68.6%-73.0%), and 60.7% (95% CI, 57.0%-64.3%) and hypertension control rates were 42.9% (95% CI, 40.5%-45.2%), 36.9% (95% CI, 34.7%-39.2%), and 31.2% (95% CI, 28.6%-33.9%) for whites, blacks, and Hispanics, respectively. When stratified by insurance status, blacks (odds ratio, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.64-0.86] for insured and 0.59 [95% CI, 0.36-0.94] for uninsured) and Hispanics (odds ratio, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.60-0.91] for insured and 0.58 [95% CI, 0.36-0.94] for uninsured) persistently had lower rates of hypertension control compared with whites. Racial disparities also persisted in subgroups stratified by age (≥60 and <60 years of age) and presence of comorbidities but worsened among patients <60 years of age. Conclusions - Black and Hispanic patients had poorer hypertension control compared with whites, and these differences were more pronounced in younger and uninsured patients. Although black patients received more intensive antihypertensive therapy, Hispanics were undertreated. Future studies should further explore all aspects of these disparities to improve cardiovascular outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere003166
JournalCirculation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
Volume10
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2017
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • blood pressure
  • cardiovascular diseases
  • drug therapy
  • hypertension
  • treatment outcome

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