Quantifying monocyte infiltration in response to intradermal tetanus toxoid injection

Joanna Z. Peng, David E. Gutstein, Lisa Beck, Lisa Hickey, Carolyn M. Hustad, Smita Abbi, Ajay Nirula, Julie Demartino, Paul Rothenberg, Keith Gottesdiener, Daniel M. Bloomfield, John A. Wagner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Aims: To characterize monocyte response in a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to intradermal tetanus toxoid (TT) injection. Materials & methods: Men with positive serum anti-tetanus titers were stratified by last TT vaccination. Subjects were administered three intradermal injections of TT and one saline control on the same side of the back. Skin biopsies were taken post-injection. After 2 weeks, the procedure was repeated on the contralateral side. Results: Men who received TT booster vaccination 1 month before the study showed greater reproducibility and lower variability in monocyte responses than those who were not revaccinated. Monocyte concentration in subjects re-vaccinated within 1 month of study start appeared maximal at 48 h post-injection. Conclusion: This assay represents a novel approach that allows for quantification of dermal monocyte/macrophage influx. This clinical methodology has potential utility in the pharmacodynamic evaluation of therapies targeting inflammatory disorders, which involve monocyte tissue recruitment, like the delayed-type hypersensitivity response.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)541-551
Number of pages11
JournalBiomarkers in Medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • chemokine antagonists
  • delayed hypersensitivity
  • monocyte
  • tetanus toxoid


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