Qualitative and quantitative analysis of MED12 c.887G>A causing both missense and splicing variants in X-linked Ohdo syndrome

Sumihito Togi, Hiroki Ura, Yo Niida

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The phenotypes associated with MED12 pathogenic variants are diverse. Male patients usually have missense variants, but the effects of base substitutions on mRNA splicing have not been investigated. Here, we report a Japanese brother with intellectual disability, characteristic facial appearance with blepharophimosis, cleft palate, Fallot tetralogy, vesicoureteral reflux, and deafness. A known missense pathogenic variant was detected in MED12, NM_005120.3:c.887G>A p.(Arg296Gln), and X-linked Ohdo syndrome was diagnosed in combination with their phenotype. mRNA splicing of MED12 was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively using long-range PCR-based targeted RNA sequencing (reverse transcribed long amplicon sequencing), and it was shown that this missense variant simultaneously causes aberrant splicing of the 42-bp in-frame deletion in exon 7, r.847_888del, which accounts for approximately 30% of the mRNAs in both siblings. The X chromosome inactivation study showed that the X chromosome carrying the mutant allele was 100% inactivated in the carrier mothers. mRNA level analysis is essential for the accurate interpretation of the effects of variants. In this case, the MED12 protein function may be reduced by more than just an amino acid substitution, resulting in the patients with the most severe phenotype of MED12-related syndrome in males.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAmerican Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A
StateAccepted/In press - 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • genotype–phenotype correlation
  • MED12-related disease
  • splicing variant
  • targeted RNA sequencing
  • X chromosome inactivation
  • X-linked Ohdo syndrome


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