Pulmonary Kaposi’s Sarcoma and Its Complications in the HAART Era: A Contemporary Case-Based Review

Oleg Epelbaum, Ronaldo Go, Geminikumar Patel, Sidney Braman

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations

Abstract

The early years of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic introduced the global medical community to Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), a heretofore seldom encountered angiosarcomatous neoplasm associated with human herpesvirus-8. At that time, clinicians treating these KS patients were routinely exposed to the pulmonary manifestations of this malignancy, including characteristic airway lesions, peribronchovascular opacities, and the typically hemorrhagic pleural effusions. They also witnessed uncommon complications of pulmonary KS such as chylous effusions, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Since the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy, the incidence of KS has steadily declined and with that so has clinician familiarity with this disease. Herein, we present four KS cases recently encountered at our institution that illustrate both typical manifestations of pulmonary KS as well as its thoracic complications. The case descriptions are followed by a review of these clinical entities with the aim of restoring awareness among frontline physicians of what is now a rare but not quite extinct AIDS-defining neoplasm.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)163-169
Number of pages7
JournalLung
Volume194
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2016

Keywords

  • AIDS
  • Chylopericardium
  • Chylothorax
  • Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage
  • Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
  • Kaposi’s sarcoma

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