Psychosocial adaptation of middle childhood boys with hypospadias after genital surgery

David E. Sandberg, Heino F.L. Meyer-Bahlburg, Terry W. Hensle, Selwyn B. Levitt, Stanley J. Kogan, Edward F. Reda

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42 Scopus citations


Objective: To compare the psychosocial adaptation of boys with hypospadias after genital surgery to a community sample. Methods: Boys (6 to 10 years) with a history of hypospadias repair (n = 175) were compared with a community sample (n = 333) in a postal questionnaire survey using the Child Behavior Checklist. Results: Few significant differences between cases and controls emerged. Boys with hypospadias were (slightly) lower in social involvement but did not perform more poorly in school. Boys with hypospadias displayed fewer externalizing behavior problems than controls, but a significant difference in nocturnal enuresis was not detected. Level of behavior problems did not differentiate hypospadias severity subgroups, but greater surgical and hospitalization experiences were associated with increased internalizing problems. Poorer cosmetic appearance of the genitals was associated with worse school performance. Conclusions: Surgically corrected hypospadias should not be considered a risk factor for poor psychosocial adaptation in childhood, but emotional problems increase with the number of hospital-related experiences.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)465-475
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Pediatric Psychology
Issue number8
StatePublished - 2001
Externally publishedYes


  • Childhood behavior
  • Hospitalization
  • Hypospadias
  • Psychological adaptation
  • Surgery


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