Atopic dermatitis is a pruritic skin disease affecting predominantly young people. There is evidence that psychologic stress constitutes an increased risk for atopy and influences the disease's clinical course. This risk is believed mediated by the effects of stress on neuroimmunoregulation, which in turn modulates the hypersensitivity response and involves immunoglobulin E-mediated inflammation, helper T-cell 2 predominance, and eosinophilia. This article examines theoretic perspectives and other behavioral dimensions, such as maternal caring behavior, infant response to stress, temperament, and the so-called "hygiene hypothesis." The Darwinian framework and the mental scenario are examined. These processes may be akin to the generation of antibodies by the immune system.