Prothrombotic Milieu, Thrombotic Events and Prophylactic Anticoagulation in Hospitalized COVID-19 Positive Patients: A Review

Michael Joseph Cryer, Serdar Farhan, Christoph C. Kaufmann, Bernhard Jäger, Aakash Garg, Prakash Krishnan, Roxana Mehran, Kurt Huber

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations

Abstract

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although initial reports concentrated on severe respiratory illness, emerging literature has indicated a substantially elevated risk of thromboembolic events in patients with COVID-19 disease. Pro-inflammatory cytokine release has been linked to endothelial dysfunction and activation of coagulation pathways, as evident by elevated D-dimer levels and deranged coagulation parameters. Both macrovascular and microvascular thromboses have been described in observational cohort and post-mortem studies. Concurrently, preliminary data have suggested the role of therapeutic anticoagulation in preventing major thromboembolic complications in moderately but not critically ill patients. However, pending results from randomized controlled trials, clear guidance is lacking regarding the intensity and duration of anticoagulation in such patients. Herein, we review the existing evidence on incidence and pathophysiology of COVID-19 related thromboembolic complications and guide anticoagulation therapy based on current literature and societal consensus statements.

Original languageEnglish
JournalClinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis
Volume28
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2022

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • SARS-CoV2
  • antithrombotic therapy
  • prophylactic anticoagulation
  • thromboembolism
  • thrombosis

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