Proteomic and Metabolomic Signatures of Diet Quality in Young Adults

Elizabeth Costello, Jesse A. Goodrich, William B. Patterson, Douglas I. Walker, Jiawen Chen, Brittney O. Baumert, Sarah Rock, Frank D. Gilliland, Michael I. Goran, Zhanghua Chen, Tanya L. Alderete, David V. Conti, Lida Chatzi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The assessment of “omics” signatures may contribute to personalized medicine and precision nutrition. However, the existing literature is still limited in the homogeneity of participants’ characteristics and in limited assessments of integrated omics layers. Our objective was to use post-prandial metabolomics and fasting proteomics to identify biological pathways and functions associated with diet quality in a population of primarily Hispanic young adults. We conducted protein and metabolite-wide association studies and functional pathway analyses to assess the relationships between a priori diet indices, Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI) and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets, and proteins (n = 346) and untargeted metabolites (n = 23,173), using data from the MetaAIR study (n = 154, 61% Hispanic). Analyses were performed for each diet quality index separately, adjusting for demographics and BMI. Five proteins (ACY1, ADH4, AGXT, GSTA1, F7) and six metabolites (undecylenic acid, betaine, hyodeoxycholic acid, stearidonic acid, iprovalicarb, pyracarbolid) were associated with both diets (p < 0.05), though none were significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Overlapping proteins are involved in lipid and amino acid metabolism and in hemostasis, while overlapping metabolites include amino acid derivatives, bile acids, fatty acids, and pesticides. Enriched biological pathways were involved in macronutrient metabolism, immune function, and oxidative stress. These findings in young Hispanic adults contribute to efforts to develop precision nutrition and medicine for diverse populations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number429
JournalNutrients
Volume16
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2024
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • diet quality
  • metabolomics
  • pathway analysis
  • proteomics

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