As the most common noncutaneous malignancy in American men, prostate cancer currently accounts for 29% of all diagnosed cancers, and ranks second as the cause of cancer fatality in American men. Prostatic cancer is rarely symptomatic early in its course and therefore disease presentation often implies local extension or even metastatic disease. Thus, it is extremely critical to detect and diagnose prostate cancer in its earliest stages, often prior to the presentation of symptoms. Three of the most common techniques used to detect prostate cancer are the digital rectal exam, the transrectal ultrasound, and the use of biomarkers. This review presents an update regarding the field of prostate cancer biomarkers and comments on future biomarkers. Although there is not a lack of research in the field of prostate cancer biomarkers, the discovery of a novel biomarker that may have the advantage of being more specific and effective warrants future scientific inquiry.
- Gleason scores
- Prostate cancer