Prospective Study of TMVR Using Balloon-Expandable Aortic Transcatheter Valves in MAC: MITRAL Trial 1-Year Outcomes

Mayra Guerrero, Dee Dee Wang, Mackram F. Eleid, Amit Pursnani, Michael Salinger, Hyde M. Russell, Susheel K. Kodali, Isaac George, Vinayak N. Bapat, George D. Dangas, Gilbert H.L. Tang, Ignacio Inglesis, Christopher U. Meduri, Igor Palacios, Mark Reisman, Brian K. Whisenant, Anastasia Jermihov, Tatiana Kaptzan, Bradley R. Lewis, Carl TommasoPhilip Krause, Jeremy Thaden, Jae K. Oh, Pamela S. Douglas, Rebecca T. Hahn, Martin B. Leon, Charanjit S. Rihal, Ted Feldman, William W. O'Neill

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Scopus citations


Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate 1-year outcomes of valve–in–mitral annular calcification (ViMAC) in the MITRAL (Mitral Implantation of Transcatheter Valves) trial. Background: The MITRAL trial is the first prospective study evaluating the feasibility of ViMAC using balloon-expandable aortic transcatheter heart valves. Methods: A multicenter prospective study was conducted, enrolling high-risk surgical patients with severe mitral annular calcification and symptomatic severe mitral valve dysfunction at 13 U.S. sites. Results: Between February 2015 and December 2017, 31 patients were enrolled (median age 74.5 years [interquartile range (IQR): 71.3 to 81.0 years], 71% women, median Society of Thoracic Surgeons score 6.3% [IQR: 5.0% to 8.8%], 87.1% in New York Heart Association functional class III or IV). Access was transatrial (48.4%), transseptal (48.4%), or transapical (3.2%). Technical success was 74.2%. Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) with hemodynamic compromise occurred in 3 patients (transatrial, n = 1; transseptal, n = 1; transapical, n = 1). After LVOTO occurred in the first 2 patients, pre-emptive alcohol septal ablation was implemented to decrease risk in high-risk patients. No intraprocedural deaths or conversions to open heart surgery occurred during the index procedures. All-cause mortality at 30 days was 16.7% (transatrial, 21.4%; transseptal, 6.7%; transapical, 100% [n = 1]; p = 0.33) and at 1 year was 34.5% (transatrial, 38.5%; transseptal, 26.7%; p = 0.69). At 1-year follow-up, 83.3% of patients were in New York Heart Association functional class I or II, the median mean mitral valve gradient was 6.1 mm Hg (IQR: 5.6 to 7.1 mm Hg), and all patients had ≤1+ mitral regurgitation. Conclusions: At 1 year, ViMAC was associated with symptom improvement and stable transcatheter heart valve performance. Pre-emptive alcohol septal ablation may prevent transcatheter mitral valve replacement–induced LVOTO in patients at risk. Thirty-day mortality of patients treated via transseptal access was lower than predicted by the Society of Thoracic Surgeons score. Further studies are needed to evaluate safety and efficacy of ViMAC.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)830-845
Number of pages16
JournalJACC: Cardiovascular Interventions
Issue number8
StatePublished - 26 Apr 2021


  • mitral annular calcification
  • mitral valve disease
  • mitral valve replacement
  • transcatheter mitral valve replacement


Dive into the research topics of 'Prospective Study of TMVR Using Balloon-Expandable Aortic Transcatheter Valves in MAC: MITRAL Trial 1-Year Outcomes'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this