Prospective assessment of ictal behavior using the revised Responsiveness in Epilepsy Scale (RES-II)

Andrew Bauerschmidt, Nika Koshkelashvili, Celestine C. Ezeani, Ji Yeoun Yoo, Yan Zhang, Louis N. Manganas, Kailash Kapadia, Deanna Palenzuela, Christian C. Schmidt, Regina Lief, Bridget T. Kiely, Tenzin Choezom, Michael McClurkin, Andrew Shorten, Kamil Detyniecki, Lawrence J. Hirsch, Joseph T. Giacino, Hal Blumenfeld

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Impaired consciousness in epilepsy has a significant negative impact on patients' quality of life yet is difficult to study objectively. Here, we develop an improved prospective Responsiveness in Epilepsy Scale-II (RES-II) and report initial results compared with the earlier version of the scale (RES). The RES-II is simpler to administer and includes both verbal and non-verbal test items. We evaluated 75 seizures (24 patients) with RES and 34 seizures (11 patients) with RES-II based on video-EEG review. The error rate per seizure by test administrators improved markedly from a mean of 2.01 ± 0.04 with RES to 0.24 ± 0.11 with RES-II. Performance during focal seizures showed a bimodal distribution, corresponding to the traditional complex partial vs. simple partial seizure classification. We conclude that RES-II has improved accuracy and testing efficiency compared with the original RES. Prospective objective testing will ultimately lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of impaired consciousness in epilepsy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)25-28
Number of pages4
JournalEpilepsy and Behavior
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Behavioral testing
  • Consciousness
  • Epilepsy
  • Focal seizures
  • Generalized tonic-clonic seizures
  • Partial seizures


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