Profile of inhaled levodopa and its potential in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease: Evidence to date

Ami B. Patel, Joohi Jimenez-Shahed

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Inhaled levodopa is a newly emerging therapeutic option in the treatment of “off ” symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Its mode of delivery offers more rapid absorption of levodopa and shorter onset of clinical benefit compared to oral formulations, and has been shown to be feasible for use in patients with PD experiencing worse motor function due to declining plasma levodopa levels. Clinical development of this compound is supported by preclinical, Phase I–III, long-term-safety studies and studies in special populations, including otherwise-healthy asthmatics and smokers. These investigations demonstrated that the drug is well tolerated without risk of long-term (up to 1 year) changes in pulmonary function or spirom-etry measures. The most common side effects among PD patients were a mild cough, upper respiratory tract infection, nausea, sputum discoloration, and dyskinesia. Inhaled levodopa offers a different administration method and side-effect profile from the currently available options for rescue therapy for Off periods in PD, though comparative studies have not been performed. The drug is presently under review by the US Food and Drug Administration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2955-2964
Number of pages10
JournalNeuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
StatePublished - 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Dry-powder inhalation
  • Dyskinesia
  • Levodopa
  • Motor fluctuations
  • Spirometry


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