Procedural interventions for oligoprogression during treatment with immune checkpoint blockade in gynecologic malignancies: a case series

Tiffany Y. Sia, Vivian Wan, Michael Finlan, Qin C. Zhou, Alexia Iasonos, Oliver Zivanovic, Yukio Sonoda, Dennis S. Chi, Kara Long Roche, Elizabeth Jewell, William P. Tew, Roisin E. O'Cearbhaill, Seth Cohen, Vicky Makker, Ying L. Liu, Claire F. Friedman, Chrisann Kyi, Dmitriy Zamarin, Ginger Gardner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective To evaluate the feasibility and outcomes of performing procedural interventions, defined as surgical resection, tumor ablation, or targeted radiation therapy, for oligoprogressive disease among patients with gynecologic malignancies who are treated with immune checkpoint blockade. Methods Patients with gynecologic cancers treated with immune checkpoint blockade between January 2013 and October 2021 who underwent procedural interventions including surgical resection, interventional radiology ablation, or radiation therapy for oligoprogressive disease were identified. Procedures performed before immune checkpoint therapy initiation or ≥6 months after therapy completion were excluded. Long immunotherapy duration prior to intervention was defined as ≥6 months. Progression-free survival and overall survival were calculated from procedure date until disease progression or death, respectively. Results During the study period, 886 patients met inclusion criteria and received immune checkpoint blockade therapy. Of these, 34 patients underwent procedural interventions for oligoprogressive disease; 7 underwent surgical resection, 3 underwent interventional radiology ablation, and 24 underwent radiation therapy interventions. Primary disease sites included uterus (71%), ovary (24%), and cervix (6%). Sites of oligoprogression included abdomen/pelvis (26%), bone (21%), lung (18%), distant lymph node (18%), brain (9%), liver (6%), and vagina (3%). Most tumors (76%) did not exhibit microsatellite instability or mismatch repair deficiency. Approximately half (53%) of the patients had long immune checkpoint therapy duration prior to intervention. Median progression-free survival following the procedure was 5.3 months (95% CI, 3.1–9.9), and median overall survival was 21.7 months (95% CI, 14.9–not estimable). Long versus short immune checkpoint therapy duration prior to procedure and length of immune checkpoint therapy had no effect on progression-free or overall survival. Conclusions Procedural interventions for patients with oligoprogression on immune checkpoint blockade therapy are feasible and demonstrate favorable outcomes. With expanding use of immune checkpoint therapy, it is important to investigate combined modalities to maximize therapeutic benefit for patients with gynecologic cancers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)594-601
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Issue number4
StatePublished - 31 Jan 2024
Externally publishedYes


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