Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in women

M. P. Gray, B. Vogel, R. Mehran, J. A. Leopold, G. A. Figtree

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Ischemic heart disease is the primary cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in both men and women. Strategies targeting traditional modifiable risk factors are essential–including hypertension, smoking, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus–particularly for atherosclerosis, but additionally for stroke, heart failure and some arrhythmias. However, challenges related to education, screening and equitable access to effective preventative therapies persist, and are particularly problematic for women around the globe and those from lower socioeconomic groups. The association of female-specific risk factors (e.g. premature menopause, gestational hypertension, small for gestational age births) with CVD provides a potential window for targeted prevention strategies. However, further evidence for specific effective screening and interventions is urgently required. In addition to population-level factors involved in increasing the risk of suffering a CVD event, efforts are leveraging the enormous potential of blood-based ‘omics’, improved imaging biomarkers and increasingly complex bioinformatic analytic approaches to strive toward more personalized early disease detection and personalized preventative therapies. These novel tactics may be particularly relevant for women in whom traditional risk factors perform poorly. Here we discuss established and emerging approaches for improving risk assessment, early disease detection and effective preventative strategies to reduce the mammoth burden of CVD in women.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)104-112
Number of pages9
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2024


  • Coronary artery disease
  • biomarkers
  • precision medicine
  • prevention
  • risk factors


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