Prevalence of and risk factors for anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in women living with human immunodeficiency virus

Elizabeth A. Stier, Shelly Y. Lensing, Teresa M. Darragh, Ashish A. Deshmukh, Mark H. Einstein, Joel M. Palefsky, Naomi Jay, J. Michael Berry-Lawhorn, Timothy Wilkin, Dorothy J. Wiley, Luis F. Barroso, Ross D. Cranston, Rebecca Levine, Humberto M. Guiot, Audrey L. French, Deborah Citron, M. Katayoon Rezaei, Stephen E. Goldstone, Elizabeth Chiao

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26 Scopus citations


Background. Women living with human immunodeficiency virus (WLHIV) have disproportionately high rates of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus compared with the general population of women. Anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) precede anal cancer, and accurate studies of HSIL prevalence among WLHIV in the United States are lacking. Methods. The AIDS Malignancy Consortium 084 study was a multicenter national trial to evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for anal HSIL in a US cohort. Eligible participants were WLHIV aged ≥18 years with no history of anal HSIL. Study participants had an examination including collection of cervical/vaginal and anal specimens, followed by high-resolution anoscopy with biopsy. Results. We enrolled 256 women with evaluable anal pathology. The mean age was 49.4 years, 64% women were non-Hispanic black, 67% were former or current smokers, and 56% reported ever having anal sex with a man. The median CD4 T-cell count was 664 cells/μL. The prevalence of anal histologic HSIL (hHSIL) was 27% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22%-33%). There was a strong concordance (240/254) between local and consensus pathologists for hHSIL vs less than hHSIL (κ = 0.86 [95% CI,.79-.93]). Current CD4 count of ≤200 cells/μL was the strongest predictor of consensus anal hHSIL diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 10.34 [95% CI, 3.47-30.87]). History of anoreceptive intercourse was also associated with hHSIL (aOR, 2.44 [95% CI, 1.22-4.76]). Conclusions. The prevalence of anal hHSIL in WLHIV in the United States was 27% in this study where all participants received high-resolution anoscopy and biopsy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1701-1707
Number of pages7
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Issue number8
StatePublished - 15 Apr 2020


  • Epidemiology
  • HIV
  • HPV
  • HSIL
  • Women's health


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