Objective: To evaluate and compare the inflammatory response and mediators in the endometrium of patients with hydrosalpinges compared with normal controls. Design: Retrospective case-control study. Setting: Urban medical center. Patient(s) and Intervention(s): Hysterectomy samples were identified as being affected by hydrosalpinx or salpingitis (n = 30) and were age-matched with control samples (n = 30). Interventions: Fallopian tube and endometrial slides were analyzed for leukocytes and immunohistochemical techniques performed for cytokines (interleukin-2 [IL-2]). Main Outcome Measure(s): Evaluate and compare the endometrial inflammatory response (leukocytes and cytokines) from samples affected and non-affected by hydrosalpinx and salpingitis. Result(s): Examination of tubal and endometrial slides with hydrosalpinx demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the number of overall inflammatory cells. High-intensity immunohistochemical staining for IL-2 was demonstrated in 7.4% of controls versus 65% of cases. Conclusion(s): A defined, identifiable, local response to hydrosalpingeal fluid has been demonstrated in the endometrium. This response consists of statistically significant elevations of leukocytes and IL-2. An inflammatory endometrial response may be an independent contributor to the decreased reproductive outcome observed in patients with hydrosalpinges.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)972-976
Number of pages5
JournalFertility and Sterility
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2006


  • Endometrium
  • IVF
  • cytokine
  • hydrosalpinx
  • infertility
  • inflammatory cells


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