Preparation of tumor antigen-loaded mature dendritic cells for immunotherapy

Rachel L.ubong Sabado, Elizabeth Miller, Meredith Spadaccia, Isabelita Vengco, Farah Hasan, Nina Bhardwaj

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations

Abstract

While clinical studies have established that antigen-loaded DC vaccines are safe and promising therapy for tumors, their clinical efficacy remains to be established. The method described below, prepared in accordance with Good Manufacturing Process (GMP) guidelines, is an optimization of the most common ex vivo preparation method for generating large numbers of DCs for clinical studies. Our method utilizes the synthetic TLR 3 agonist Polyinosinic-Polycytidylic Acid-poly-L-lysine Carboxymethylcellulose (Poly-ICLC) to stimulate the DCs. Our previous study established that Poly-ICLC is the most potent individual maturation stimulus for human DCs as assessed by an upregulation of CD83 and CD86, induction of interleukin-12 (IL-12), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), interleukmin 1 (IL-1), and type I interferons (IFN), and minimal interleukin 10 (IL-10) production. DCs are differentiated from frozen peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained by leukapheresis. PBMCs are isolated by Ficoll gradient centrifugation and frozen in aliquots. On Day 1, PBMCs are thawed and plated onto tissue culture flasks to select for monocytes which adhere to the plastic surface after 1-2 hr incubation at 37 °C in the tissue culture incubator. After incubation, the lymphocytes are washed off and the adherent monocytes are cultured for 5 days in the presence of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to differentiate to immature DCs. On Day 6, immature DCs are pulsed with the keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) protein which serves as a control for the quality of the vaccine and may boost the immunogenicity of the vaccine. The DCs are stimulated to mature, loaded with peptide antigens, and incubated overnight. On Day 7, the cells are washed, and frozen in 1 ml aliquots containing 4-20 x 10(6) cells using a controlled-rate freezer. Lot release testing for the batches of DCs is performed and must meet minimum specifications before they are injected into patients.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Visualized Experiments
Issue number78
DOIs
StatePublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes

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