Preoperative Risk Factors for Adverse Events in Adults Undergoing Bowel Resection for Inflammatory Bowel Disease: 15-Year Assessment of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program

Cristina Fernandez, Zoran Gajic, Eren Esen, Feza Remzi, David Hudesman, Samrachana Adhikari, Mara McAdams-Demarco, Dorry L. Segev, Joshua Chodosh, John Dodson, Aasma Shaukat, Adam S. Faye

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:Older adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at higher risk for postoperative complications as compared to their younger counterparts; however, factors contributing to this are unknown. We assessed risk factors associated with adverse IBD-related surgical outcomes, evaluated trends in emergency surgery, and explored differential risks by age.METHODS:Using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database, we identified adults ≥18 years of age who underwent an IBD-related intestinal resection from 2005 to 2019. Our primary outcome included a 30-day composite of mortality, readmission, reoperation, and/or major postoperative complication.RESULTS:Overall, 49,746 intestinal resections were performed with 9,390 (18.8%) occurring among older adults with IBD. Nearly 37% of older adults experienced an adverse outcome as compared to 28.1% among younger adults with IBD (P < 0.01). Among all adults with IBD, the presence of preoperative sepsis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.94-2.24), malnutrition (aOR, 1.22; 95% CI 1.14-1.31), dependent functional status (aOR, 6.92; 95% CI 4.36-11.57), and requiring emergency surgery (aOR, 1.50; 95% CI 1.38-1.64) increased the odds of an adverse postoperative outcome, with similar results observed when stratifying by age. Furthermore, 8.8% of surgeries among older adults were emergent, with no change observed over time (P = 0.16).DISCUSSION:Preoperative factors contributing to the risk of an adverse surgical outcome are similar between younger and older individuals with IBD, and include elements such as malnutrition and functional status. Incorporating these measures into surgical decision-making can reduce surgical delays in older individuals at low risk and help target interventions in those at high risk, transforming care for thousands of older adults with IBD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2230-2241
Number of pages12
JournalAmerican Journal of Gastroenterology
Volume118
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2023
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Crohn's disease
  • IBD-related surgery
  • preoperative risk factors
  • ulcerative colitis

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