Prenatal PM2.5 exposure in the second and third trimesters predicts neurocognitive performance at age 9–10 years: A cohort study of Mexico City children

Esha Bansal, Hsiao Hsien Hsu, Erik de Water, Sandra Martínez-Medina, Lourdes Schnaas, Allan C. Just, Megan Horton, David C. Bellinger, Martha M. Téllez-Rojo, Robert O. Wright

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations

Abstract

Introduction: Prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) is an important, under-studied risk factor for neurodevelopmental dysfunction. We describe the relationships between prenatal PM2.5 exposure and vigilance and inhibitory control, executive functions related to multiple health outcomes in Mexico City children. Methods: We studied 320 children enrolled in Programming Research in Obesity, GRowth, Environment and Social Stressors, a longitudinal birth cohort study in Mexico City. We used a spatio-temporal model to estimate daily prenatal PM2.5 exposure at each participant's residential address. At age 9–10 years, children performed three Go/No-Go tasks, which measure vigilance and inhibitory control ability. We used Latent class analysis (LCA) to classify performance into subgroups that reflected neurocognitive performance and applied multivariate regression and distributed lag regression modeling (DLM) to test overall and time-dependent associations between prenatal PM2.5 exposure and Go/No-Go performance. Results: LCA detected two Go/No-Go phenotypes: high performers (Class 1) and low performers (Class 2). Predicting odds of Class 1 vs Class 2 membership based on prenatal PM2.5 exposure timing, logistic regression modeling showed that average prenatal PM2.5 exposure in the second and third trimesters correlated with increased odds of membership in low-performance Class 2 (OR = 1.59 (1.16, 2.17), p = 0.004). Additionally, DLM analysis identified a critical window consisting of gestational days 103–268 (second and third trimesters) in which prenatal PM2.5 exposure predicted poorer Go/No-Go performance. Discussion: Increased prenatal PM2.5 exposure predicted decreased vigilance and inhibitory control at age 9–10 years. These findings highlight the second and third trimesters of gestation as critical windows of PM2.5 exposure for the development of vigilance and inhibitory control in preadolescent children. Because childhood development of vigilance and inhibitory control informs behavior, academic performance, and self-regulation into adulthood, these results may help to describe the relationship of prenatal PM2.5 exposure to long-term health and psychosocial outcomes. The integrative methodology of this study also contributes to a shift towards more holistic analysis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number111651
JournalEnvironmental Research
Volume202
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2021

Keywords

  • Air pollution
  • Exposure windows
  • Go/No-Go
  • Latent class analysis
  • Neurodevelopment
  • Particulate matter

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Prenatal PM2.5 exposure in the second and third trimesters predicts neurocognitive performance at age 9–10 years: A cohort study of Mexico City children'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this