Prefrontal cortex and cognitive aging in macaque monkeys

Nicholas A. Upright, Mark G. Baxter

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Cognitive impairments that accompany aging, even in the absence of neurodegenerative diseases, include deficits in executive function and memory mediated by the prefrontal cortex. Because of the unique differentiation and expansion of the prefrontal cortex in primates, investigations of the neurobiological basis of cognitive aging in nonhuman primates have been particularly informative about the potential basis for age-related cognitive decline in humans. We review the cognitive functions mediated by specific subregions of prefrontal cortex, and their corresponding connections, as well as the evidence for age-related alterations in specific regions of prefrontal cortex. We also discuss evidence for similarities and differences in the effects of aging on prefrontal cortex across species.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere23250
JournalAmerican Journal of Primatology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2021


  • aging
  • executive function
  • prefrontal
  • rhesus
  • spatial memory


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