Monitoring in Anesthesia and Perioperative Care follows the tradition of previous texts that document the current art and science of perioperative patient monitoring. Additionally, the text addresses the systems-based practice issues that drive the highly regulated health care industry of the early 21st century. The initial chapters cover the concepts of history, medicolegal implications, validity of measurement, and education. The core of the book addresses the many monitoring modalities. To the extent possible, each chapter is organized in a systematic fashion to describe: 1. Technical concepts: How does it work? 2. Parameters monitored: What information do you get from it? 3. Evidence of utility: Is there evidence that it makes a difference in outcome? 4. Complications: What harm can it cause? 5. Credentialing and monitoring standards: What is the educational or credentialing process, if any? 6. Practice guidelines: When should/must I use it? Ultrasonic guidance of invasive catheterization and regional anesthesia are included as monitoring concepts. The next group of chapters addresses scales and assessments that are increasingly evidence-based documentation standards. Finally, electronic health records, alarm systems, and automated medication delivery systems complete the body of the text. A table in the appendix is intended to help residents and other anesthesia care providers know the typical monitoring modalities that are chosen for major categories of operations.