Prediction, prevention, and treatment of post reperfusion syndrome in adult orthotopic liver transplant patients

Samuel DeMaria, Lyle Nolasco, Divya Igwe, Robert St Jules, Yuki Bekki, Natalie K. Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Importance: This review explores proposed predictors, preventative measures, and treatment options for post-reperfusion syndrome (PRS) in liver transplantation and provides updated data for clinicians. Objectives: The review aims to understand the status and progress made regarding PRS during orthotopic liver transplantation. Moreover, the predictors of PRS will be analyzed to highlight risk factors. Mediators of PRS and the modes of action of the currently available preventative and management agents that target particular PRS factors will be investigated. Data Sources: Data is drawn from secondary sources from databases of peer-reviewed journals. The bibliographies of select sources were also used to obtain additional data studies using the ‘snowball’ method. Study Selection: The initial data search provided 1394 studies analyzed using PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines. After applying the eligibility criteria, 18 studies were fit for inclusion. Results: The study identified that in addition to the severity of underlying medical conditions, other significant PRS predictors included patient age, sex, duration of cold ischemia, and the surgical technique. While the use of epinephrine and norepinephrine is well-established, further preventative measures commonly involve specifically targeting known mediators of the syndrome, such as antioxidants, vasodilators, free radical scavengers, and anticoagulants. Current management strategies involve supportive therapy. Machine Perfusion may ultimately decrease the risk of PRS. Conclusion: PRS still holds unknowns, including the underlying pathophysiology, controllable factors, and ideal management practices. There is a need for further study, particularly prospective trials since liver transplantation is the gold standard for treating end-stage liver disease and the incidence of PRS remains high.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere15014
JournalClinical Transplantation
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2023


  • liver transplantation
  • reperfusion liver cirrhosis


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