Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and acute kidney injury (AKI) are heterogeneous syndromes defined clinically by serial measures of kidney function. Each condition possesses strong histopathologic associations, including glomerular obsolescence or acute tubular necrosis, respectively. Despite such characterization, there remains wide variation in patient outcomes and treatment responses. Precision medicine efforts, as exemplified by the Kidney Precision Medicine Project (KPMP), have begun to establish evolving, spatially anchored, cellular and molecular atlases of the cell types, states, and niches of the kidney in health and disease. The KPMP atlas provides molecular context for CKD and AKI disease drivers and will help define subtypes of disease that are not readily apparent from canonical functional or histopathologic characterization but instead are appreciable through advanced clinical phenotyping, pathomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, epigenomic, and metabolomic interrogation of kidney biopsy samples. This perspective outlines the structure of the KPMP, its approach to the integration of these diverse datasets, and its major outputs relevant to future patient care.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)402-410
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2024


  • Acute kidney injury
  • chronic kidney disease
  • precision medicine


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