Pre- and perinatal complications in relation to Tourette syndrome and co-occurring obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Mohamed Abdulkadir, Jay A. Tischfield, Robert A. King, Thomas V. Fernandez, Lawrence W. Brown, Keun Ah Cheon, Barbara J. Coffey, Sebastian F.T.M. de Bruijn, Lonneke Elzerman, Blanca Garcia-Delgar, Donald L. Gilbert, Dorothy E. Grice, Julie Hagstrøm, Tammy Hedderly, Isobel Heyman, Hyun Ju Hong, Chaim Huyser, Laura Ibanez-Gomez, Young Key Kim, Young Shin KimYun Joo Koh, Sodahm Kook, Samuel Kuperman, Andreas Lamerz, Bennett Leventhal, Andrea G. Ludolph, Marcos Madruga-Garrido, Athanasios Maras, Marieke D. Messchendorp, Pablo Mir, Astrid Morer, Alexander Münchau, Tara L. Murphy, Thaïra J.C. Openneer, Kerstin J. Plessen, Judith J.G. Rath, Veit Roessner, Odette Fründt, Eun Young Shin, Deborah A. Sival, Dong Ho Song, Jungeun Song, Anne Marie Stolte, Jennifer Tübing, Els van den Ban, Frank Visscher, Sina Wanderer, Martin Woods, Samuel H. Zinner, Matthew W. State, Gary A. Heiman, Pieter J. Hoekstra, Andrea Dietrich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


Pre- and perinatal complications have been implicated in the onset and clinical expression of Tourette syndrome albeit with considerable inconsistencies across studies. Also, little is known about their role in co-occurring obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention–deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in individuals with a tic disorder. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the role of pre- and perinatal complications in relation to the presence and symptom severity of chronic tic disorder and co-occurring OCD and ADHD using data of 1113 participants from the Tourette International Collaborative Genetics study. This study included 586 participants with a chronic tic disorder and 527 unaffected family controls. We controlled for age and sex differences by creating propensity score matched subsamples for both case-control and within-case analyses. We found that premature birth (OR = 1.72) and morning sickness requiring medical attention (OR = 2.57) were associated with the presence of a chronic tic disorder. Also, the total number of pre- and perinatal complications was higher in those with a tic disorder (OR = 1.07). Furthermore, neonatal complications were related to the presence (OR = 1.46) and severity (b = 2.27) of co-occurring OCD and also to ADHD severity (b = 1.09). Delivery complications were only related to co-occurring OCD (OR = 1.49). We conclude that early exposure to adverse situations during pregnancy is related to the presence of chronic tic disorders. Exposure at a later stage, at birth or during the first weeks of life, appears to be associated with co-occurring OCD and ADHD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)126-135
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Psychiatric Research
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2016


  • Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
  • Delivery
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder
  • Pregnancy
  • Prenatal
  • Tourette syndrome


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