Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is an occasional complication of pediatric organ transplantation that, heretofore, has not been associated with airway obstruction. We report the first documented case of PTLD associated with complete airway obstruction resulting in sudden respiratory arrest and death in a 3-year-old child. This is contrasted to a subsequent case of PTLD wherein heightened clinical suspicion and prompt tonsillectomy resulted in a definitive diagnosis and improved outcome. The early clinical hallmarks of PTLD are a mononucleosis-like syndrome, tonsillar enlargement, and positive Epstein-Barr virus seroconversion. The potential for a fatal outcome of PTLD involving Waldeyer's ring components warrants early recognition and aggressive treatment.
- posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease
- respiratory tract