Postoperative outcomes following glioblastoma resection using a robot-assisted digital surgical exoscope: a case series

Rebecca B. Baron, Nikita Lakomkin, Alexander J. Schupper, Dominic Nistal, Kambiz Nael, Gabrielle Price, Constantinos G. Hadjipanayis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Introduction: Maximal extent of resection (EOR) of glioblastoma (GBM) is associated with greater progression free survival (PFS) and improved patient outcomes. Recently, a novel surgical system has been developed that includes a 2D, robotically-controlled exoscope and brain tractography display. The purpose of this study was to assess outcomes in a series of patients with GBM undergoing resections using this surgical exoscope. Methods: A retrospective review was conducted for robotic exoscope assisted GBM resections between 2017 and 2019. EOR was computed from volumetric analyses of pre- and post-operative MRIs. Demographics, pathology/MGMT status, imaging, treatment, and outcomes data were collected. The relationship between these perioperative variables and discharge disposition as well as progression-free survival (PFS) was explored. Results: A total of 26 patients with GBM (median age = 57 years) met inclusion criteria, comprising a total of 28 cases. Of these, 22 (79%) tumors were in eloquent regions, most commonly in the frontal lobe (14 cases, 50%). The median pre- and post-operative volumes were 24.0 cc and 1.3 cc, respectively. The median extent of resection for the cohort was 94.8%, with 86% achieving 6-month PFS. The most common neurological complication was a motor deficit followed by sensory loss, while 8 patients (29%) were symptom-free. Conclusions: The robotic exoscope is safe and effective for patients undergoing GBM surgery, with a majority achieving large-volume resections. These patients experienced complication profiles similar to those undergoing treatment with the traditional microscope. Further studies are needed to assess direct comparisons between exoscope and microscope-assisted GBM resection.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)519-527
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Neuro-Oncology
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Complications
  • Exoscope
  • Extent of resection
  • Progression-free survival
  • Robotics


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