Possible Immunotherapeutic Strategies Based on Carcinogen-Dependent Subgroup Classification for Oral Cancer

Jiwei Sun, Qingming Tang, Junyuan Zhang, Guangjin Chen, Jinfeng Peng, Lili Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


The oral cavity serves as an open local organ of the human body, exposed to multiple external factors from the outside environment. Coincidentally, initiation and development of oral cancer are attributed to many external factors, such as smoking and drinking, to a great extent. This phenomenon was partly explained by the genetic abnormalities traditionally induced by carcinogens. However, more and more attention has been attracted to the influence of carcinogens on the local immune status. On the other hand, immune heterogeneity of cancer patients is a huge obstacle for enhancing the clinical efficacy of tumor immunotherapy. Thus, in this review, we try to summarize the current opinions about variant genetic changes and multiple immune alterations induced by different oral cancer carcinogens and discuss the prospects of targeted immunotherapeutic strategies based on specific immune abnormalities caused by different carcinogens, as a predictive way to improve clinical outcomes of immunotherapy-treated oral cancer patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article number717038
JournalFrontiers in Molecular Biosciences
StatePublished - 23 Aug 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • areca nut
  • immune microenvironment
  • immunotherapies
  • oral squamous cell carcinoma
  • smoking


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