Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Mend Macrophage Transcriptome, Glycome, and Phenotype in the Patients with Neurodegenerative Diseases, Including Alzheimer's Disease

Mary Dover, Taylor Moseley, Adrienne Biskaduros, Mousumi Paulchakrabarti, Sung Hee Hwang, Bruce Hammock, Biswa Choudhury, Karolina Elzbieta Kaczor-Urbanowicz, Andrzej Urbanowicz, Marco Morselli, Johnny Dang, Matteo Pellegrini, Ketema Paul, Laurent A. Bentolila, Milan Fiala, Giulio Pasinetti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: Macrophages of healthy subjects have a pro-resolution phenotype, upload amyloid-β (Aβ) into endosomes, and degrade Aβ, whereas macrophages of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) generally have a pro-inflammatory phenotype and lack energy for brain clearance of Aβ. Objective: To clarify the pathogenesis of sporadic AD and therapeutic effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with vitamins B and D and antioxidants on monocyte/macrophage (MM) migration in the AD brain, MM transcripts in energy and Aβ degradation, MM glycome, and macrophage clearance of Aβ. Methods: We followed for 31.3 months (mean) ten PUFA-supplemented neurodegenerative patients: 3 with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), 2 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 3 MCI/vascular cognitive impairment, 2 with dementia with Lewy bodies, and 7 non-supplemented caregivers. We examined: monocyte migration in the brain and a blood-brain barrier model by immunochemistry and electron microscopy; macrophage transcriptome by RNAseq; macrophage glycome by N-glycan profiling and LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry; and macrophage phenotype and phagocytosis by immunofluorescence. Results: MM invade Aβ plaques, upload but do not degrade Aβ, and release Aβ into vessels, which develop cerebrovascular amyloid angiopathy (CAA); PUFA upregulate energy and Aβ degradation enzyme transcripts in macrophages; PUFA enhance sialylated N-glycans in macrophages; PUFA reduce oxidative stress and increase pro-resolution MM phenotype, mitochondrial membrane potential, and Aβ phagocytosis (p<0.001). Conclusion: Macrophages of SCI, MCI, and AD patients have interrelated defects in the transcriptome, glycome, Aβ phagocytosis, and Aβ degradation. PUFA mend macrophage transcriptome, enrich glycome, enhance Aβ clearance, and benefit the cognition of early-stage AD patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)245-261
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Alzheimer's Disease
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2023


  • Alzheimer's disease
  • amyloid-β
  • cerebrovascular amyloid angiopathy
  • coenzyme Q2
  • glycome
  • macrophage
  • mitochondrial membrane potential
  • phagocytosis
  • polyunsaturated fatty acids
  • transcriptome


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