PinX1 inhibits the invasion and metastasis of human breast cancer via suppressing NF-κB/MMP-9 signaling pathway

Meilin Shi, Menghan Cao, Jun Song, Qinghua Liu, Hailong Li, Fei Meng, Zhenqiang Pan, Jin Bai, Junnian Zheng

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Background: PinX1 (PIN2/TRF1-interacting telomerase inhibitor 1) was suggested to be correlated with tumor progression. This study was designed to evaluate the role of PinX1 in human breast cancer. Methods: To evaluate the function of PinX1 in breast cancer, we used a tissue microarray (TMA) of 405 human breast cancer patients and immunohistochemistry to analyze the correlation between PinX1 expression and clinicopathologic variables and patient survival. We also detected the abilities of cell migration and invasion in breast cancer by performing cell migration and invasion assay, gelatin zymography and western blot analysis. Lastly, we set up the nude mice model by Tail vein assay to exam the functional role of PinX1 in breast cancer metastasis. Results: We found that low PinX1 expression was associated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.002) and histology grade (P = 0.001) in patients, as well as with poorer overall and disease-specific survival (P = 0.010 and P = 0.003, respectively). Moreover, we identified that PinX1 inhibited the migration and invasion of breast cancer by suppressing MMP-9 expression and activity via NF-κB-dependent transcription in vitro. Finally, our mice model confirmed that PinX1 suppressed breast cancer metastasis in vivo. Conclusions: Our data revealed that low PinX1 expression was an independent negative prognostic factor for breast cancer patients. These findings suggested that PinX1 might be function as a tumor metastasis suppressor in the development and progression of breast cancer by regulating the NF-κB/MMP-9 signaling pathway, and might be a prognostic marker as well as a therapeutic target for breast cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Article number66
JournalMolecular Cancer
Issue number1
StatePublished - 26 Mar 2015


  • Breast cancer
  • MMP-9
  • Metastasis
  • NF-κB
  • PinX1
  • Prognostic


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